APA Format

The pages in this section explain the basics of citing research in APA format. I only included some of the most common reference types, so you should check your APA style guide for other reference types.

Changes in the 7th edition:


  • The previous edition had special rules for 3-5 authors, but they changed it to be more simple. All sources with three or more authors are listed with the first author's last name followed by "et al." and the year.

Reference list:

  • Instead of using elipses with 7+ authors, you only use them with 20+ authors. Anything fewer than 20 authors, you list everyone's names.
  • The issue number is now always included, not just when the journal is paginated by issue.
  • You no longer include "doi:" before the actual DOI. It goes straight from page numbers to the DOI itself (with a period between them).
  • For books, the publisher is still included, but the publication location is not.